Russia’s war on Ukraine and the rise of China are raising serious questions about order in international politics. If the West is to have a fighting chance at maintaining its military supremacy and upholding global order, it needs to answer some fundamental questions about the United States (US)-led alliance system and what is expected of allies. This Policy Brief looks at burden-sharing in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). As the US seeks to focus its attention on China and the Indo-Pacific, greater responsibility for the security of Europe seems likely to fall on European shoulders. In a context where the US has underwritten European security for close to 80 years, and where American lives and money have been put on the line, it is long overdue that Europe do more for its own defence.